Haemorrhoids commonly known as piles are swollen blood vessels in or around the anus and rectum. The haemorrhoidal veins are located in the lowest part of the rectum and the anus. Sometimes they swell so that the vein walls become stretched, thin, and irritated by passing bowel movements.
Haemorrhoids are classified into two general categories: internal and external.
Internal haemorrhoids lie far enough inside the rectum that you can’t see or feel them. They don’t usually hurt because there are few pain-sensing nerves in the rectum. Bleeding may be the only sign that they are there. Sometimes internal haemorrhoids prolapse, or enlarge and protrude outside the anal sphincter. If so, you may be able to see or feel them as moist, pink pads of skin that are pinker than the surrounding area. Prolapsed haemorrhoids may hurt because they become irritated by rubbing from clothing and sitting. They usually recede into the rectum on their own; if they don’t, they can be gently pushed back into place.
Stages of prolapsed:
- First degree piles may bleed but don’t come out of your anus.
- Second-degree piles come out of your anus when you have a bowel movement but go back inside on their own afterwards.
- Third-degree piles come out of your anus and only go back inside when you push them in.
- Fourth-degree piles are always partly outside your anus and you can’t push them back in. They may become very swollen and painful if the blood inside them clots.
External haemorrhoids lie within the anus and are often uncomfortable. If an external haemorrhoid prolapses to the outside (usually in the course of passing a stool), you can see and feel it. Blood clots sometimes form within prolapsed external haemorrhoids, causing an extremely painful condition.
Haemorrhoids don’t always cause pain or other symptoms. If you do have symptoms, they can include:
- Bleeding when you have a bowel movement – you may see blood on toilet paper or drips in the toilet or on your faeces
- A lump in or around your anus
- A slimy discharge of mucus from your anus, or leaking faeces
- A feeling that your bowels haven’t emptied completely
- Itchy or sore skin around your anus
- Pain and discomfort after a bowel movement (if you have external piles)
Piles develop when the veins in your anal canal become swollen. This can happen for a number of reasons, including:
- Increased pressure in your abdomen (tummy), for example, when you’re pregnant or giving birth
- Straining to empty your bowels, for example, if you have constipation
- Ageing – as you get older you may be more likely to get piles because your anal canal weakens
- Diarrhoea lasting a long time
- Long-term coughing
- Having a family history of piles
Some factors make it more likely that piles you already have will start to cause problems. These include:
- Frequently lifting heavy objects
- Long periods of time sitting or travelling
- Giving birth
Ayurveda treatment in Haemorrhoids:
Aggravated Pitta Dosha leads to the impairment of digestive fire and accumulation of toxins (ama) in the digestive gut. These toxins impair the functioning of the digestive gut, causing irregular diarrhoea and flatulence, and further leading to the aggravation of Vata Dosha. Aggravated Vata causes swelling of Haemorrhoids, a condition that is referred to as ‘Raktarsh’ (bleeding piles) in Ayurveda.
Treatment for Bhagandhara involves one or following of the procedures depending on the type and the path of the tract. Through Ayurveda treatments, the recovery is faster, less painful and reoccurrence rate is very low.
The treatment modalities includes panchakarma, kshara Sutra, kshara karma, and agni karma external therapies, internal medications, Activities, Advice of food and lifestyle changes
- Panchakarma – Mrudu Virechana and Basti
- Kshara-sutra – In this procedure the tract is probed and the kshara sutra (alkaline thread) is passed through it and changed at regular intervals until the healing is complete.
- Application of Kshara – Application of medicine (alkaline in nature) derived from a combination of various herbs.
- Agnikarma – thermal cautery.
Internal Medication – A combination of herbs which works on the following principles is administered
- Balance the Doshas
- Improve digestion
- Improve dietary habits
- Externally – Medicated Sitz bath.
Specific Asanas, Pranayama, Meditation, Mudra.
Food and lifestyle changes: specific to the individuals constitution, nature of work and geographical conditions.