Diabetes mellitus (DM), more often just called Diabetes, is a group of metabolic lifestyle disorders and diseases in which a person has high blood sugar levels over an extended period of time. This is either because the islets of Langerhans, which are found in the pancreas, do not produce the required glucose-regulating peptide-hormone or, In some cases, because the cells of the body cannot or do not respond to the glucose-regulating hormone.
Diabetes is also alternatively known as high blood glucose, a condition in which the body doesn’t properly process or make use of food as fuel or as a sauce of energy. There are a variety of physical symptoms that are associated with overly high blood sugar levels in the body.
Some of these symptoms include increased levels of thirst, a frequent need to urinate and increased levels of hunger.
There are three known main types of diabetes mellitus, namely; Type 1 diabetes, Type 2 diabetes, Gestational diabetes.
Type 1 Diabetes mellitus comes about as a direct result of the pancreas not manufacturing the glucose-regulating hormone. This particular form of diabetes was previously called “juvenile diabetes”. To date, the cause of type 1 diabetes has yet to be discovered and remains unknown.
Type 2 Diabetes mellitus begins with resistance to the pancreatic produced hormone, and the cells of the body failing to respond to the hormone. Progression of the disease may cause a lack of the hormone to also develop. This form of diabetes was previously known as “adult-onset diabetes”.
Out of all three types of diabetes, the most common is Gestational diabetes. This particular form of diabetes is brought on by overly excessive body weight and a total lack of or severely insufficient physical exercise. It is also known to occur in pregnant women, who have no previous history of diabetes but have developed excessively high blood sugar levels whilst going through their pregnancy
Diabetes can cause a vast number of chronic health complications if left untreated. Some of these complications can be very severe. They can include diabetic ketoacidosis – when this happens the body manufactures high levels of blood acids called ketones, breaking down fat and muscle for energy. The more ketones in the blood, the iller a person becomes, left untreated it can lead to swelling of the brain, excessive dehydration and coma.
Hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state or HHS; here high blood sugar levels create high osmolarity but without serious ketoacidosis, its symptoms include bodily weakness, dehydration, leg cramps and visual impairment.,
Death is also a possibility of untreated diabetes.
Along with the chronic complications, there are also various severe complications such as chronic kidney disease, foot ulcers, eye damage or blindness and the risk of a stroke.
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