Virechana is the second Pradhana karma by the virtue of which Pitta dosha is removed from the body system, particularly the GI tract.
The shloka ‘Virechanama Pittaharnama’ mentioned in Charaka Samhita implies that Virechana Karma is the best medicine or cure for treating the diseases emerging from vitiation of the Pitta dosha.
Like in the other Ayurvedic treatments and therapies, the Virechana is given after properly judging the type of disease and tolerance of the patient. Normally this karma is performed in the diseases of Alimentary canal like chronic constipation, indigestion, anorexia, worm infection etc. Purgation is given with care in specific amounts according to aggravated doshas.
The purgative medicines are of five types namely Laxatives, Simple purgatives, Drastic purgatives, Hydragogues purgatives and Cholagogue purgatives. These are mentioned in the increasing order of their purgative action, relying upon the severity of the disease. Some medicinal plants that are used for the purpose are Nishoth, Kutaki, Amaltas.